Android Introduction

android

Android is a complete operating environment based upon the Linux® V2.6 kernel. Initially, the deployment target for Android was the mobile-phone arena, including smart phones and lower-cost flip-phone devices. However, Android’s full range of computing services and rich functional support have the potential to extend beyond the mobile-phone market. Android can be useful for other platforms and applications. In this article, get an introduction to the Android platform and learn how to code a basic Android application.Introduction

The BlackBerry and iPhone, which have appealing and high-volume mobile platforms, are addressing opposite ends of a spectrum. The BlackBerry is rock-solid for the enterprise business user. For a consumer device, it’s hard to compete with the iPhone for ease of use and the “cool factor.” Android, a young and yet-unproven platform, has the potential to play at both ends of the mobile-phone spectrum and perhaps even bridge the gulf between work and play.

Today, many network-based or network-capable appliances run a flavor of the Linux kernel. It’s a solid platform: cost-effective to deploy and support and readily accepted as a good design approach for deployment. The UI for such devices is often HTML-based and viewable with a PC or Mac browser. But not every appliance needs to be controlled by a general computing device. Consider a conventional appliance, such as a stove, microwave or bread maker. What if your household appliances were controlled by Android and boasted a color touch screen? With an Android UI on the stove-top, the author might even be able to cook something.

In this article, learn about the Android platform and how it can be used for mobile and nonmobile applications. Install the Android SDK and build a simple application. Download the source code for the example application in this article.

A brief history of Android

The Android platform is the product of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of organizations collaborating to build a better mobile phone. The group, led by Google, includes mobile operators, device handset manufacturers, component manufacturers, software solution and platform providers, and marketing companies. From a software development standpoint, Android sits smack in the middle of the open source world.

The first Android-capable handset on the market was the G1 device manufactured by HTC and provisioned on T-Mobile. The device became available after almost a year of speculation, where the only software development tools available were some incrementally improving SDK releases. As the G1 release date neared, the Android team released SDK V1.0 and applications began surfacing for the new platform.

To spur innovation, Google sponsored two rounds of “Android Developer Challenges,” where millions of dollars were given to top contest submissions. A few months after the G1, the Android Market was released, allowing users to browse and download applications directly to their phones. Over about 18 months, a new mobile platform entered the public arena.

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The Android platform

With Android’s breadth of capabilities, it would be easy to confuse it with a desktop operating system. Android is a layered environment built upon a foundation of the Linux kernel, and it includes rich functions. The UI subsystem includes:

  • Windows
  • Views
  • Widgets for displaying common elements such as edit boxes, lists, and drop-down lists

Android includes an embeddable browser built upon WebKit, the same open source browser engine powering the iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser.

Android boasts a healthy array of connectivity options, including WiFi, Bluetooth, and wireless data over a cellular connection (for example, GPRS, EDGE, and 3G). A popular technique in Android applications is to link to Google Maps to display an address directly within an application. Support for location-based services (such as GPS) and accelerometers is also available in the Android software stack, though not all Android devices are equipped with the required hardware. There is also camera support.

Historically, two areas where mobile applications have struggled to keep pace with their desktop counterparts are graphics/media, and data storage methods. Android addresses the graphics challenge with built-in support for 2-D and 3-D graphics, including the OpenGL library. The data-storage burden is eased because the Android platform includes the popular open source SQLite database. Figure 1 shows a simplified view of the Android software layers.

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